Romania Brief History

By | May 19, 2024

Romania: Country Facts

Romania, located in Southeast Europe, is known for its rich history, diverse culture, and stunning landscapes. Its capital is Bucharest. With a population of over 19 million, Romania is a member of the European Union and NATO. The country boasts a mix of medieval castles, picturesque villages, and vibrant cities. Romania’s economy is diverse, with sectors including agriculture, industry, and services. Despite historical challenges, Romania has made significant strides in recent years towards democracy, economic development, and European integration.

Ancient Romania (Prehistory – 7th Century AD)

Dacian Civilization

Romania’s history begins with the Dacians, an ancient Thracian people who inhabited the region during prehistoric times. The Dacians were known for their advanced culture, including fortified settlements, agriculture, and metalworking.

Roman Conquest

In 106 AD, the Roman Empire conquered Dacia, incorporating it into the Roman province of Dacia. The Romans introduced Latin culture, architecture, and governance to the region, leaving a lasting impact on Romanian society.


The Roman occupation led to the Romanization of Dacia, with Latin becoming the dominant language and Roman customs influencing local traditions. However, Dacian elements persisted, contributing to Romania’s unique cultural heritage.

Medieval Romania (7th Century – 16th Century)

Migration Period

Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Romania witnessed waves of migrations by various peoples, including Goths, Huns, and Slavs, leading to cultural and demographic changes in the region.


During the Middle Ages, Christianity spread in Romania, with the conversion of the Dacians to Christianity and the establishment of Christian kingdoms and principalities.

Transylvania and Wallachia

Transylvania and Wallachia emerged as distinct political entities during the medieval period, with Transylvania influenced by Hungarian and Germanic cultures and Wallachia by Byzantine and Slavic influences.


Moldavia, located in northeastern Romania, also emerged as a powerful principality, with its own rulers and cultural identity. Moldavia developed close ties with neighboring states and played a crucial role in regional politics.

Vlad the Impaler

Vlad III, known as Vlad the Impaler or Dracula, ruled Wallachia in the 15th century and became infamous for his brutal methods of punishing his enemies. He inspired the fictional character Dracula, created by Bram Stoker.

Early Modern Romania (16th Century – 19th Century)

Ottoman Rule

During the early modern period, much of Romania came under Ottoman rule, with the Ottoman Empire exerting control over Wallachia, Moldavia, and parts of Transylvania.

Phanariote Rule

In the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire imposed Phanariote rulers, Greek administrators loyal to the Ottoman Sultan, on Wallachia and Moldavia, leading to corruption and political instability.

National Awakening

The 19th century saw a resurgence of Romanian nationalism and a movement for independence from Ottoman rule, inspired by the ideals of the European Enlightenment and the French Revolution.

Revolution of 1848

In 1848, Romania experienced a wave of revolutionary movements, with uprisings and protests against Ottoman rule and the establishment of nationalist aspirations for independence and unity.

Unification of Romania

In 1859, Wallachia and Moldavia elected the same ruler, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, leading to the formal union of the two principalities as the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, laying the foundation for modern Romania.

Modern Romania (20th Century – Present)

Kingdom of Romania

In 1881, Romania became a kingdom under King Carol I, marking a period of modernization, industrialization, and territorial expansion, including the acquisition of Transylvania, Bukovina, and Bessarabia.

World War I

Romania joined the Allies in World War I in 1916, hoping to gain territory from the Central Powers. However, the war brought devastation to Romania, leading to territorial losses and economic hardship.

Interwar Period

The interwar period in Romania was marked by political instability, economic struggles, and the rise of authoritarian and fascist movements, including the Iron Guard, which promoted ultranationalism and anti-Semitism.

World War II

During World War II, Romania initially aligned with the Axis powers but later switched sides to join the Allies after a coup in 1944. The war left Romania occupied by Soviet forces and under communist influence.

Communist Era

In 1947, Romania became a communist state under the leadership of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and later Nicolae Ceaușescu, who ruled with an iron fist, suppressing dissent and promoting a cult of personality.

Revolution of 1989

In December 1989, Romania experienced a popular uprising against the communist regime, leading to the overthrow and execution of Nicolae Ceaușescu and the establishment of a democratic government.

Transition to Democracy

Romania underwent a period of transition to democracy and a market economy in the 1990s, facing challenges such as political instability, corruption, and economic reform.

European Union and NATO Membership

Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007, marking significant milestones in its integration with the West and commitment to democratic values and European cooperation.

Modern Challenges

Despite progress, Romania faces challenges such as corruption, poverty, and regional disparities, as well as the need for further reforms in areas such as governance, rule of law, and infrastructure.

Cultural Heritage

Romania boasts a rich cultural heritage, including traditional music, dance, cuisine, and folklore, as well as architectural landmarks such as medieval castles, Orthodox monasteries, and fortified churches.

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