Romania Just

Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It is located in the southeastern part of the continent, bordered by Ukraine to the north, Bulgaria to the south, Serbia to the southwest, Hungary to the west, and Moldova to the east. The country also has a coastline along the Black Sea to the east.



Romania has a diverse climate, with temperate continental characteristics in the interior and a more moderate climate along the coast. Summers are generally warm to hot, with temperatures averaging around 22-24°C (72-75°F), while winters can be cold, with temperatures dropping below freezing. The Carpathian Mountains influence the climate, creating variations in temperature and precipitation across the country.


Romania’s diverse geography supports a rich variety of flora and fauna. Forests cover approximately one-third of the country, providing habitat for species such as brown bears, wolves, lynxes, and wild boars. The Danube Delta, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is home to numerous bird species, including pelicans, herons, and cormorants, making it one of Europe’s most important wetland habitats.

Longest Rivers

The Danube River is the longest river in Romania, flowing through the country’s southern region before emptying into the Black Sea. The Danube is navigable and serves as a vital transportation route for both cargo and passenger vessels. Other major rivers in Romania include the Prut, Mureș, Olt, and Siret rivers.

Highest Mountains

The Carpathian Mountains dominate much of Romania’s landscape, forming a crescent-shaped arc across the central and northern regions of the country. The highest peak in Romania is Moldoveanu Peak, which rises to an elevation of 2,544 meters (8,346 feet) in the Făgăraș Mountains. The Carpathians are known for their stunning scenery, diverse ecosystems, and recreational opportunities.



The territory of present-day Romania has been inhabited since ancient times, with evidence of human presence dating back to the Paleolithic era. Various civilizations and cultures, including the Dacians, Thracians, Romans, and Celts, have left their mark on the region. The Dacians, a Thracian tribe, established a powerful kingdom in the area, which was eventually conquered by the Roman Empire in the 2nd century AD.

Roman Influence

Romania’s name is derived from the Latin word “Romanus,” reflecting its historical ties to the Roman Empire. The Romans colonized the region and established numerous settlements, including the city of Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, which served as the capital of the Roman province of Dacia. The Roman occupation left a lasting legacy on Romania, influencing its language, culture, and architecture.

Medieval Period

Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Romania came under the influence of various medieval kingdoms and empires, including the Byzantine Empire, the Hungarian Kingdom, and the Ottoman Empire. In the 14th century, the principality of Wallachia emerged as a regional power under the rule of Vlad the Impaler, also known as Dracula, who famously defended the region against Ottoman expansion.

Ottoman Rule and Independence

During the 15th and 16th centuries, much of Romania came under Ottoman rule, with the principality of Moldavia and Wallachia becoming vassal states of the Ottoman Empire. However, both regions retained a degree of autonomy and self-governance. In the 19th century, nationalist movements emerged, advocating for independence and the unification of Romanian-inhabited territories.

Unification and Modern Age

In 1859, Moldavia and Wallachia elected the same prince, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, leading to the unification of the two principalities under the name of Romania. In 1877-1878, Romania declared independence from the Ottoman Empire and fought alongside Russia in the Russo-Turkish War, which resulted in the recognition of Romania as an independent state at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. The new kingdom continued to expand its territory, incorporating regions such as Transylvania, Bukovina, and Bessarabia, albeit amidst territorial disputes and conflicts with neighboring powers.

World Wars and Communist Era

Romania played a complex role in both World War I and World War II, initially aligning with the Central Powers and later joining the Allied forces. Following World War II, Romania fell under Soviet influence, and in 1947, King Michael I was forced to abdicate, leading to the establishment of a communist regime under the leadership of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and later Nicolae Ceaușescu. The communist era was marked by repression, censorship, and economic hardship, culminating in the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which led to the overthrow of Ceaușescu’s regime and the transition to democracy.

Modern Romania

Since the fall of communism, Romania has undergone significant political, economic, and social changes. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007, signaling its integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions. However, Romania continues to face challenges related to corruption, poverty, and regional disparities, as well as the legacy of its communist past.



As of the latest available data, Romania has a population of approximately 19.2 million people. The population is ethnically diverse, with Romanians constituting the majority ethnic group, followed by Hungarians, Roma, and other minority groups. The population density varies across the country, with urban areas such as Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, and Timișoara having higher population concentrations than rural areas.

Language and Religion

The official language of Romania is Romanian, a Romance language closely related to Italian, French, and Spanish. The majority of the population identifies as Christian, with Eastern Orthodoxy being the predominant denomination. Romania also has significant Catholic and Protestant communities, as well as smaller Jewish and Muslim populations.

Ethnicity and Culture

Romania’s cultural landscape is shaped by its diverse ethnic heritage, with each ethnic group contributing to the country’s traditions, cuisine, and folklore. The Roma, or Romani people, have a distinct cultural identity and are known for their music, dance, and craftsmanship. Hungary’s minority population, primarily concentrated in Transylvania, has preserved its Hungarian language, customs, and cultural institutions.

Administrative Divisions and Population

Romania is divided into 41 counties (județe), as well as the municipality of Bucharest, which has special administrative status. The following is a list of Romania’s administrative divisions along with their populations:

  1. Alba County – Population: 342,000
  2. Arad County – Population: 411,000
  3. Argeș County – Population: 610,000
  4. Bacău County – Population: 616,000
  5. Bihor County – Population: 600,000
  6. Bistrița-Năsăud County – Population: 300,000
  7. Botoșani County – Population: 412,000
  8. Brăila County – Population: 300,000
  9. Brașov County – Population: 570,000
  10. Buzău County – Population: 460,000
  11. Călărași County – Population: 280,000
  12. Caraș-Severin County – Population: 285,000
  13. Cluj County – Population: 700,000
  14. Constanța County – Population: 684,000
  15. Covasna County – Population: 220,000
  16. Dâmbovița County – Population: 510,000
  17. Dolj County – Population: 690,000
  18. Galați County – Population: 530,000
  19. Giurgiu County – Population: 270,000
  20. Gorj County – Population: 340,000
  21. Harghita County – Population: 325,000
  22. Hunedoara County – Population: 375,000
  23. Ialomița County – Population: 260,000
  24. Iași County – Population: 760,000
  25. Ilfov County – Population: 476,000
  26. Maramureș County – Population: 475,000
  27. Mehedinți County – Population: 250,000
  28. Mureș County – Population: 550,000
  29. Neamț County – Population: 470,000
  30. Olt County – Population: 415,000
  31. Prahova County – Population: 760,000
  32. Satu Mare County – Population: 360,000
  33. Sălaj County – Population: 240,000
  34. Sibiu County – Population: 410,000
  35. Suceava County – Population: 630,000
  36. Teleorman County – Population: 360,000
  37. Timiș County – Population: 730,000
  38. Tulcea County – Population: 210,000
  39. Vaslui County – Population: 395,000
  40. Vâlcea County – Population: 365,000
  41. Vrancea County – Population: 330,000
  42. Municipality of Bucharest – Population: 1.8 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Bucharest
  2. Cluj-Napoca
  3. Timișoara
  4. Iași
  5. Constanța
  6. Craiova
  7. Brașov
  8. Galați
  9. Ploiești
  10. Oradea

Education Systems

Free Education

Education in Romania is provided by both public and private institutions at all levels, from preschool to higher education. Primary and secondary education is compulsory and free of charge in public schools, with the government funding educational expenses such as textbooks, meals, and transportation for students in need. However, private schools also exist, offering alternative educational programs for those who can afford them.

Top Universities

Romania is home to several prestigious universities offering a wide range of academic programs across various disciplines. Some of the top universities in Romania include:

  • University of Bucharest
  • Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca
  • Alexandru Ioan Cuza University in Iași
  • University Politehnica of Bucharest
  • University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” in Bucharest

These universities are renowned for their academic excellence, research contributions, and international collaborations.



Romania has several international airports, with Henri Coandă International Airport in Bucharest being the largest and busiest. Other major airports include Cluj International Airport, Timișoara Traian Vuia International Airport, and Henri Coandă International Airport in Bucharest. These airports connect Romania to destinations across Europe and beyond, facilitating both domestic and international travel.


Romania has an extensive railway network operated by the state-owned company Căile Ferate Române (CFR). The total length of Romania’s railway network is approximately 11,000 kilometers (6,835 miles), with electrified and non-electrified lines connecting major cities, towns, and rural areas. The railway system plays a crucial role in passenger and freight transportation within the country and to neighboring countries.


Romania has a well-developed network of highways and expressways, including the A1, A2, A3, and A4 motorways, which connect major cities and regions across the country. The total length of Romania’s highways is approximately 860 kilometers (534 miles), with ongoing expansion and modernization projects aimed at improving connectivity and road safety.


Romania has several ports along the Danube River and the Black Sea coast, including the Port of Constanța, which is the largest port in the country and one of the busiest in the Black Sea region. Other major ports include the Port of Galați, Port of Brăila, and Port of Midia. These ports play a vital role in facilitating maritime trade and transportation, handling a wide range of cargo, including containers, bulk goods, and petroleum products.

Country Facts

  • Population: 19.2 million
  • Capital: Bucharest
  • Official Language: Romanian
  • Religion: Predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christianity
  • Race: Romanian (majority), Hungarian, Roma, German, others
  • Currency: Romanian Leu (RON)
  • ISO Country Code: RO
  • International Calling Code: +40
  • Top-Level Domain: .ro